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The objective of scaling and root planing, otherwise known as conventional periodontal therapy, non-surgical periodontal therapy, deep cleaning, or dental prophylaxis, is to remove or eliminate the etiologic agents which cause inflammation: dental plaque, its products and calculus,thus helping to establish a periodontium that is free of disease. Scaling and root planing is considered the basic treatment of periodontal diseases and may be the only treatment required to treat mild cases of periodontists; however, it may also be the initial therapy prior to future surgical needs. For the procedure to be considered effective, the patient must be able to be maintained at a level of periodontal health that will prevent reinfection with periodontal pathogens.This requires optimal home care and ongoing periodontal maintenance therapy, usually every three - four months to sustain health. Scaling and root planing are ineffective in cases where tooth mobility is severe, such conditions require periodontal surgery and placement of bone grafts.